The following Conditions are related to

Select a specific condition below to view its details.

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm facts An aneurysm is an abnormal area of localized widening of a blood vessel. The aorta bulges at the site of an aneurysm like a weak spot on a worn tire. Aortic aneurysms are typically spindle-shaped and involve the aorta below the arteries to the kidneys. The most common cause of an aneurysm is arteriosclerosis. Smoking is a major risk factor. Abdominal aortic an  Read More

  • Acf with cardiac defects

    Cayler syndrome, also known as "asymmetric crying facies with cardiac defects," is an extremely rare disorder characterized by congenital heart defects and the underdevelopment or absence of one of the muscles that control the movements of the lower lip. The disorder is present at birth (congenital) and is usually first noticed when the infant cries or smiles. Half of the lower lip cannot be drawn down and outward because of the incomplete dev  Read More

  • Addiction

    What Is Tobacco Addiction? When people are addicted, they have a compulsive need to seek out and use a substance, even when they understand the harm it can cause. Tobacco products -- cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco -- can all be addictive. Everyone knows that smoking is bad for you, and most people that do it want to quit. In fact, nearly 35 million people make a serious attempt to quit each year. Unfortunately, most w  Read More

  • Allergy (allergies)

    Allergies are reactions of the immune system to any foreign particle that enters the body. The immune system plays a vital role in protecting the body from infections. The production of antibodies to counter the antigens of the pathogen triggers a reaction causing the release of eosinophils. This leads to the inflammat  Read More

  • Alzheimer's disease

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurologic disorder that causes the brain to shrink (atrophy) and brain cells to die. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that affects a person's ability to function independently. Approximately 5.8 million people in the United States age 65 and older live with Alzhei  Read More

  • Anal cancer

    Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. The anus is the end of the large intestine, below the rectum, through which stool (solid waste) leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like muscles, called sphincter muscles, open and close the anal opening and let stool pass out of the body. The anal canal, the p  Read More

  • Anemia

    What is sickle cell anemia? Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease) is a disorder of the blood caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein within the red blood cells). The abnormal hemoglobin causes distorted (sickled) red blood cells. The sickled red blood cells are fragile and prone to rupture. When the number of red blood cells decreases from rupture (hemolysis), anemia is the result. This condition is r  Read More

  • Angina

    The heart is the pump responsible for circulating blood throughout the body. Myocardium (myo=muscle + cardium=muscle) is the heart muscle that contracts to pump that blood and like any other muscle, it requires oxygen rich blood for energy. Angina pectoris describes the pain, discomfort, or other symptoms that occur when blood flow to heart muscle cells is not enough to meet its energy needs. The classic description of angina is a crus  Read More

  • Aortic valve stenosis

    Aortic stenosis is abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve. A number of conditions cause disease resulting in narrowing of the aortic valve. When the degree of narrowing becomes significant enough to impede the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the arteries, heart problems develop. The basic mechanism is as follows: The heart is a muscular pump with four chambers and four heart valves. The upper chambers, the rig  Read More

  • Aphasia

    Aphasia, a disturbance in the formulation and comprehension of language, is due to damage to brain tissue areas responsible for language; aphasia may occur suddenly or develop over time, depending on the type and location of brain tissue damage. Strokes are a common cause of aphasia. Causes of aphasia are mainly due to strokes, severe head trauma, brain tumors, and brain infections; however, any brain tissue damage for  Read More

  • Arrhythmia

    A heart arrhythmia (uh-RITH-me-uh) is an irregular heartbeat. Heart rhythm problems (heart arrhythmias) occur when the electrical signals that coordinate the heart's beats don't work properly. The faulty signalling causes the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia) or irregularly. Heart arrhythmias may feel like a fluttering or racing heart and may be harmless. However, som  Read More

  • Arthritis

    Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune syst  Read More

  • Arthritis, infectious

    Infectious arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints that occurs as a result of infection by bacteria, viruses or, less frequently, fungi or parasites. The symptoms of Infectious arthritis depend upon which agent has caused the infection but symptoms often include fever, chills, general weakness, and headaches, followed by inflammation and painful swelling of one or more joints of the body.Most often, the infection begins  Read More

  • Atherosclerosis

    Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and elastic, but over time, the walls in your arteries can harden, a condition commonly called hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, but the  Read More

  • Atrial fibrillation

    Atrial fibrillation (A-fib) is an irregular and often very rapid heart rhythm (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots in the heart. A-fib increases the risk of stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications. During atrial fibrillation, the heart's upper chambers (the atria) beat chaotically and irregularly — out of sync with the lower chambers (the ventricles) of t  Read More

  • Balance disorders

    A balance disorder is a condition that makes you feel unsteady or dizzy, as if you are moving, spinning, or floating, even though you are standing still or lying down. Balance disorders can be caused by certain health conditions, medications, or a problem in the inner ear or the brain. Our sense of balance is primarily controlled by a maze-like structure in our inner ear called the labyrinth, which is made of bone and soft tissue. At o  Read More

  • Bilateral right-sidedness sequence

    Ivemark syndrome is a rare disorder that affects multiple organ systems of the body. It is characterized by the absence (asplenia) or underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the spleen, malformations of the heart and the abnormal arrangement of the internal organs of the chest and abdomen. The symptoms of Ivemark syndrome can vary greatly depending upon the specific abnormalities present. Many infants have symptoms associated with abnormalities affec  Read More

  • Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)

    Bile duct cancer, also called cholangiocarcinoma, is when unusual cells grow out of control inside your bile ducts. Those are thin tubes about 4 to 5 inches long that move a fluid called bile from your liver to your gallbladder and small intestine. Bile helps you digest fat in the food you eat. For some people, treatment can destroy the cancer. In others, it may never go away entirely. You may need regular doses of chemotherapy, radiat  Read More

  • Bladder cancer

    What is the bladder? The urinary bladder, or the bladder, is a hollow organ in the pelvis. Most of it lies behind the pubic bone of the pelvis, but when full of urine, it can extend up into the lower part of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store urine that drains into it from the kidney through tube-like structures called the ureters. The ureters from both the kidneys open into the urinary bladder. The bladder forms a low-press  Read More

  • Bladder cancer (cancer of the urinary bladder)

    Female urinary system Your urinary system — which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — is responsible for removing waste from your body through urine. Your kidneys, located toward the back in your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. That urine then travels through your ureters to your bladder, where the urine is stored until you can eliminate it at an appropriate time.  Read More

  • Bladder infection (cystitis)

    Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder. Bladder infection is also called cystitis and is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI). The urinary tract is naturally sterile and when microbes invade it, an infection may result. The bladder is a part of the urinary tract system. It serves as storage for urine before it is excreted from the body. Urine is produced by the kidney and it travels through ureters (one from the right kidn  Read More

  • Bone cancer

    What is bone cancer? What is metastatic bone cancer? Bone cancer is a cancer of the cells that make up the bones of the body. When cancer is found in bones, it has usually started in another organ or another location in the body and has spread to the bones. This is known as metastatic cancer and is named for the site at which the original cancer started (for example, metastatic colon cancer) and is not referred to medically as bone can  Read More

  • Brain hemorrhage (brain bleeding)

    A brain hemorrhage is bleeding in or around the brain. Causes of brain hemorrhage include high blood pressure, abnormally weak blood vessels that leak, drug abuse, and trauma. Many people who experience a brain hemorrhage have symptoms as though they are having a stroke, and can develop weakness on one side of their body, difficulty speaking, or a sense of numbness. Difficulty performing usual activities, including problems with walking or eve  Read More

  • Brain tumors, general

    A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain. Many different types of brain tumors exist. Some brain tumors are noncancerous (benign), and some brain tumors are cancerous (malignant). Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors), or cancer can begin in other parts of your body and spread to your brain (secondary, or metastatic, brain tumors). How quickly a brain tumor grows can vary greatly.  Read More

  • Breast cancer: bone marrow transplantation

    A bone marrow transplant may be used to treat patients with certain forms of cancer, such as leukemia, lymphoma, or breast cancer. The goal of such a transplant in women with breast cancer is to allow them to undergo high-dose chemotherapy -- which aggressively attacks the cancer cells, but also damages normal blood cells - and then replace the damaged cells with healthy ones. What Is Bone Marrow? Bone marrow is the spongy tissu  Read More

  • Breast cancer: checking for cancer recurrence

    Introduction to Breast Cancer Recurrence Breast cancer can recur at any time, but most recurrences occur in the first three to five years after initial treatment. Breast cancer can come back as a local recurrence (in the treated breast or near the mastectomy scar) or as a distant recurrence somewhere else in the body. The most common sites of recurrence include the lymph nodes, the bones, liver, or lungs. How Do I Know There Is  Read More

  • Breast cancer: getting support

    Facing a breast cancer diagnosis can be overwhelming. Your stress levels may skyrocket. You may worry about finances. And you may be asking yourself difficult questions, such as whether to write a living will. Education and supportive care can help you deal with the many issues and emotions you're facing. What Types Of Help Are Available? There are many sources of help available to provide support for patients and their familie  Read More

  • Brittle bone disease

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a group of rare disorders affecting the connective tissue and characterized by extremely fragile bones that break or fracture easily (brittle bones), often without apparent cause. The specific symptoms and physical findings associated with OI vary greatly from case to case. The severity of OI also varies greatly, even among individuals of the same family. OI may be a mild disorder or may result in severe complic  Read More

  • Bronchitis (acute)

    Bronchitis is an infection that affects the lungs' major airways (bronchi), causing irritation and inflammation. Bronchitis can be classified into two types: acute and long-term. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term problem that can come back. It is usually caused by long-term stress, like smoking. Acute bronchitis is short-lived. Most cases go away in a few days, but the cough may last for a few weeks.¬†Each side of your windpipe has its own set of  Read More

  • Calcific bursitis

    A bursa is a thin fluid-filled sac that reduces friction forces between tissues of the body. Chronic (repeated or long-standing) inflammation of the bursa (bursitis) can lead to calcification of the bursa. This is referred to as "calcific bursitis." The calcium deposits (calcification) can occur as long as the inflammation is present and remain after it has resolved. Calcific bursitis occurs most commonly at the shoulder (in the bursa adjacent  Read More

  • Cancer

    Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer often has the ability to spread throughout your body. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the world. But survival rates are improving for many types of cancer, thanks to improvements in cancer screening, treatment and pre  Read More

  • Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer or endometrial cancer)

    Endometrial cancer begins in the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ where fetal development occurs. Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer. Other types of cancer can form in the uterus, including uter  Read More

  • Carotid artery disease

    The carotid arteries provide blood supply to the head. There are two common carotid arteries, located on each side of the neck, that divide into the internal and external carotid arteries. The external carotid artery provides blood supply to the scalp, face, and neck while the internal carotid artery supplies blood to the brain. Narrowing of the internal carotid artery may decrease blood supply to half of the brain that it supplies. Th  Read More

  • Cholesterol management

    What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a chemical compound that the body requires as a building block for cell membranes and for hormones like estrogen and testosterone. The liver produces about 80% of the body's cholesterol and the rest comes from dietary sources like meat, poultry, eggs, fish, and dairy products. Foods derived from plants contain no cholesterol. Cholesterol content in the bloodstream is regulated by the liver. A  Read More

  • Colitis, ulcerative

    Ulcerative colitis (UL-sur-uh-tiv koe-LIE-tis) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers (sores) in your digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum. Symptoms usually develop over time, rather than suddenly. Ulcerative colitis can be debilitating and can sometimes lead to life-threatening complicati  Read More

  • Colon cancer (colorectal cancer)

    Colon cancer can occur in any part of the colon. An examination of your entire colon using a long, flexible tube equipped with a camera (colonoscopy) is one way to detect colon cancer and polyps. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the final part of the digestive tract. Colon cancer typically affects older adults, though it can happen at any age. It usually begins as small,  Read More

  • Copd (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

    COPD is a long-term lung disease that causes blocked airflow from the lungs. People who have asthma have trouble breathing, cough, cough up mucus (sputum), and wheeze. It is most often caused by exposure to irritating particles or gases over a long period of time, such as cigarette smoke. COPD patients are more likely to get heart disease, lung cancer, and a lot of other things.A lot of the time, COPD is caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis  Read More

  • Coronary artery disease

    What is heart disease? The heart is like any other muscle in body and it requires adequate blood supply to provide oxygen to allow the muscle to contract and pump. Not only does the heart pump blood to the rest of the body, it also pumps blood to itself via the coronary arteries. These arteries originate from the aorta (the major blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart) and then branch out along the surface of th  Read More

  • Cystic disease of the renal medulla

    Autosomal dominant interstitial kidney disease describes a group of diseases affecting solely the proper function of the kidney and having the following characteristics: They are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner; kidney disease develops, and dialysis or kidney transplant is required some time between the 4th and 7th decade of life; and several types of the disease are associated with elevated uric acid concentrations in blood and gout  Read More

  • Dementia

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), or Pick's disease, is a syndrome featuring shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior lobes of the brain. The symptoms of frontotemporal dementia fall into two clinical patterns that involve either: (1) changes in behavior, or (2) problems with language. Frontotemporal dementia is often inherited and runs in families. There is no treatment for frontotemporal dementia and tre  Read More

  • Depression in the elderly

    Clinical depression in the elderly is common. Although, that doesn't mean it's normal. Late-life depression affects about 6 million Americans age 65 and older. But only 10% receive treatment for depression. The likely reason is that the elderly often display symptoms of depression differently. Depression in the elderly is also frequently confused with the effects of multiple illnesses and the medicines used to treat them. How does depr  Read More

  • Diabetes insipidus

    What is the difference between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus Diabetes insipidus should not be confused with diabetes mellitus (DM), which results from insulin deficiency or resistance leading to high blood glucose, also called blood sugar. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are unrelated, although they can have similar signs and symptoms, like excessive thirst and excessive urination. Diabetes mellitus is far m  Read More

  • Diabetes insipidus, neurohypophyseal

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare kidney disorder that may be inherited or acquired. NDI is not related to the more common diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. NDI is a distinct disorder caused by complete or partial resistance of the kidneys to arginine vasopressin (AVP). Vasopressin is an antidiuretic hormone used by the kidney to manage water balance in the body. NDI ca  Read More

  • Diabetes urine tests

    Urine tests for diabetes facts Urine tests may be done in people with diabetes to evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of  Read More

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (dka)

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones.  Read More

  • Diarrhea

    Travelers' diarrhea facts Travelers' diarrhea is a gastrointestinal illness that occurs in travelers. Travelers' diarrhea usually is caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria or, less commonly, with parasites or viruses. The treatment of travelers' diarrhea is usually plenty of oral liquids as well as over-the-counter medications that control diarrhea and cramps. Antibiotic prophylaxis (preve  Read More

  • E. coli

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria normally live in the intestines of healthy people and animals. Most varieties of E. coli are harmless or cause relatively brief diarrhea. But a few particularly nasty strains, such as E. coli O157:H7, can cause severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea and vomiting. You may be exposed to E. coli from contaminated water or food — especially raw vegetables and undercooked ground beef. Healthy adul  Read More

  • Echocardiogram

    The heart is a two-stage electrical pump that circulates blood throughout the body. The anatomy includes four chambers and four valves. For the heart to function normally these structures need to be intact and the heart muscle needs to beat in a coordinated fashion, so that blood flows in and out of each chamber in the proper direction. An echocardiogram (echo=sound + card=heart + gram=drawing) is an ultrasound test that can evaluate t  Read More

  • Endocarditis

    Endocarditis is a serious inflammation of one of the four heart valves.  Read More

  • Eye floaters

    "Eye floaters" are deposits or condensation in the vitreous jelly of the eye. People use the term eye floaters to describe seeing floating spots within their vision when they look around. Eye floaters may be present in only one eye or both eyes. Why do people notice eye floaters? The structures in the front of the eye (the cornea and lens) focus rays of light onto the retina. Light focused onto the retina allows one to see. The  Read More

  • Familial gouty nephropathy

    Autosomal dominant interstitial kidney disease describes a group of diseases affecting solely the proper function of the kidney and having the following characteristics: They are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner; kidney disease develops, and dialysis or kidney transplant is required some time between the 4th and 7th decade of life; and several types of the disease are associated with elevated uric acid concentrations in blood and gout  Read More

  • Frontotemporal dementia

      Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), or Pick's disease, is a syndrome featuring shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior lobes of the brain. The symptoms of frontotemporal dementia fall into two clinical patterns that involve either: (1) changes in behavior, or (2) problems with language. Frontotemporal dementia is often inherited and runs in families. There is no treatment for frontotemporal  Read More

  • Glaucoma

    Glaucoma is a disease that is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure, in which damage to the eye (optic) nerve can lead to loss of vision and even blindness. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Glaucoma usually causes no symptoms early in its course, at which time it can only be diagnosed by regular eye examinations (screenings with the frequency of examination based on ag  Read More

  • Gout (gouty arthritis)

    Gout is a type of arthritis that causes inflammation, usually in one joint, that begins suddenly. Gouty arthritis is caused by the deposition of crystals of uric acid in a joint. Gout can cause symptoms and signs such as nodules under the skin called tophi, joint redness, swollen joints, joint pain, warmth of the joint. The most reliable method  Read More

  • Heart disease and abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia)

    An irregular heartbeat is an arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia). Heart rates can also be irregular. A normal heart rate is 50 to 100 beats per minute. Arrhythmias and abnormal heart rates don't necessarily occur together. Arrhythmias can occur with a normal heart rate, or with heart rates that are slow (called bradyarrhythmias -- less than 50 beats per minute). Arrhythmias can also occur with rapid heart rates (called tachyarrhythmias -- fas  Read More

  • Heart disease and cardiac catheterization

    Cardiac catheterization (also called cardiac cath or coronary angiogram) is an invasive imaging procedure that tests for heart disease by allowing your doctor to see how well your heart is functioning. During the test, a long, narrow tube, called a catheter, is inserted into a blood vessel in your arm or leg and guided to your heart with the aid of a special X-ray machine. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter so that X-ray movies of y  Read More

  • Heart disease and restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy, the rarest form of cardiomyopathy, is a condition in which the walls of the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) are abnormally rigid and lack the flexibility to expand as the ventricles fill with blood. The pumping or systolic function of the ventricle may be normal but the diastolic function (the ability of the heart to fill with blood) is abnormal. Therefore, it is harder for the ventricles to fil  Read More

  • Heart disease in women

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death among women. An estimated 90% of women have at least one risk factor for heart disease. Heart attack symptoms can be different for women than for men. Younger women with heart disease are more likely to die than men of the same age with heart disease. It is especially important for women and their doctors to be aware of early risk detection for primary prevention.  Read More

  • Heart disease: treating arrhythmias with ablation

    Ablation is used to treat abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias. The type of arrhythmia and the presence of other heart disease will determine whether ablation can be performed surgically or non-surgically. Non-surgical ablation, used for many types of arrhythmias, is performed in a special lab called the electrophysiology (EP) laboratory. During this non-surgical procedure a catheter is inserted into a specific area of the heart. A s  Read More

  • Heart failure and biventricular pacemakers

    What Is a Biventricular Pacemaker? Leads are implanted through a vein into the right ventricle and into the coronary sinus vein to pace or regulate the left ventricle. Usually (but not always), a lead is also implanted into the right atrium. This helps the heart beat in a more balanced way. Traditional pacemakers are used to treat slow heart rhythms. Pacemakers regulate the right atrium and right ventricle to maintain a good he  Read More

  • Immunodeficiency wiskott-aldrich type

    The WAS-related disorders are a spectrum of conditions affecting the immune system that are caused by mutations in the WAS gene. These disorders include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia and X-linked congenital neutropenia. The WAS gene abnormality results in a deficiency in the WASP protein that leads to a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy and are characterized by bloody  Read More

  • Imperforate anus

    Imperforate anus is a rare inborn abnormality characterized by the absence or abnormal localization of the anus. The rectum or the colon may be connected to the vagina or the bladder by a tunnel (fistula). With surgical correction, normal elimination can become possible.  Read More

  • Lung cancer

    Lung cancer facts Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. Cigarette smoking is the principal risk factor for development of lung cancer. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke also can cause lung cancer. The two types of lung cancer, which grow and spread differently, are the small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).  Read More

  • Male breast cancer

    What is male breast cancer? Men possess a small amount of nonfunctioning breast tissue (breast tissue that cannot produce milk) that is concentrated in the area directly behind the nipple on the chest wall. Like breast cancer in women, cancer of the male breast is the uncontrolled growth with the potential for spread of some of the cells of this breast tissue. These cells become so abnormal in appearance and behavior that they are then  Read More

  • Male menopause

    Women may not be the only ones who suffer the effects of changing hormones. Some doctors are noticing that their male patients are reporting some of the same symptoms that women experience in perimenopause and menopause. The medical community is currently debating whether or not men really do go through a well-defined menopause. Doctors say that male patients receiving hormone therapy with testosterone have reported relief of some of t  Read More

  • Malignant large bowel cystadenocarcinoma

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare malignant growth characterized by the progressive accumulation of mucus-secreting (mucinous) tumor cells within the abdomen and pelvis. The disorder develops after a small growth (polyp) located within the appendix bursts through the wall of the appendix, and spreads mucus-producing tumor cells throughout the surrounding surfaces (e.g., the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity [peritoneum]). As mucinous tum  Read More

  • Malignant large bowel tumor

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare malignant growth characterized by the progressive accumulation of mucus-secreting (mucinous) tumor cells within the abdomen and pelvis. The disorder develops after a small growth (polyp) located within the appendix bursts through the wall of the appendix, and spreads mucus-producing tumor cells throughout the surrounding surfaces (e.g., the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity [peritoneum]). As mucinous tum  Read More

  • Menopause

    Menopause is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for 12 months. It is the time in a woman's life when the function of the ovaries ceases. The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process. This so-called perimenopausal transition period is a different experience for each woman. The average age of menopause is 51 years old, but menopause may occur as early as the 30s or as late a  Read More

  • Multi-infarct dementia binswanger's type

    Binswanger disease is a progressive neurological disorder caused by arteriosclerosis and thromboembolism affecting the blood vessels that supply the white-matter and deep structures of the brain (basal ganglia and thalamus). Most patients experience progressive loss of memory and intellectual abilities (dementia), urinary urgency or incontinence, and an abnormally slow, shuffling, unsteady pattern of walking, usually over a 5-10 year period. D  Read More

  • Multiple polyposis of the colon

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare inherited cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by hundreds to thousands of precancerous colorectal polyps (adenomatous polyps). If left untreated, affected individuals inevitably develop cancer of the colon and/or rectum. FAP is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and caused by abnormalities (mutations) in the APC gene. Mutations in the APC gene cause a group of polyposis conditions  Read More

  • Myocarditis

    What is myocarditis? Myocarditis is inflammation of heart muscle.  Read More

  • Nasopharyngeal cancer

    Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes from the throat to the stomach). Air and food pass through the pharynx on the way to the trachea o  Read More

  • Old age pemphigus

    Bullous Pemphigoid is a rare, autoimmune, chronic skin disorder characterized by blistering. This disorder occurs most frequently in elderly people. Generalized blistering occurs in and under the upper layers of the skin and usually subsides spontaneously within several months or years. However, symptoms may recur. In some rare cases of Bullous Pemphigoid, complications such as pneumonia may develop.  Read More

  • Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis facts Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. Osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease. The most common symptom of osteoarthritis is pain in the affected joint(s) after repetitive use. There is no blood test for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis. The goal of treatment in osteoarthritis is to red  Read More

  • Pancreatic cancer

    What is the pancreas, and what is the function of the pancreas? The pancreas is an organ in the abdomen that sits in front of the spine above the level of the belly button. It performs two main functions. First, it makes insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels (an endocrine function); and second, it makes digestive enzymes which help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (an exocrine function). The enzymes help dige  Read More

  • Parkinson's disease

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement. In the early stages of Parkinson's disease, your face may show little or no expression. Your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred. P  Read More

  • Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia(psvt)

    Tachycardia is when your heart beats faster than normal, even when you’re not doing anything. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) is when your fast heartbeat starts in the upper, or supraventricular, chambers of the heart. It’s also known as supraventricular tachycardia. PSVT is most common in younger people, especially women.   Read More

  • Penis cancer

    Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis. The penis is a rod-shaped male reproductive organ that passes sperm and urine from the body. It contains two types of erectile tissue (spongy tissue with blood vessels that fill with blood to make an erection): Corpora cavernosa: The two columns of erectile tissue that form most of the penis. Corpus spongiosum: The si  Read More

  • Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis

    Phlebitis refers to inflammation of a vein and it can be caused by any insult to the blood vessel wall, impaired venous flow, or coagulation abnormality. Pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness are some common symptoms of phlebitis. Thrombophlebitis refers to the formation of a blood clot associated with phlebitis. Thrombophlebitis can be superficial (skin level) or deep (in deeper veins). Superfici  Read More

  • Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)

    Pneumothorax (collapsed lung) is a medical condition in which either the lungs collapse on the whole or only a portion of the lungs collapse. In this condition, the air enters the area between the lungs and chest wall known as a plural stag.  In minor cases, Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)  may not reflect any symptoms and heal on its own. But in major cases, the person might experience certain chest pain and shortness o  Read More

  • Prostate cancer

    Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.  Read More

  • Prostate cancer screening

    screening for prostate cancer Testing healthy men with no symptoms for prostate cancer is controversial. There is some disagreement among medical organizations whether the benefits of testing outweigh the potential risks.  Read More

  • Psoriatic arthritis

    Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic disease characterized by a form of inflammation of the skin (psoriasis) and joints (inflammatory arthritis). Some 10%-15% of people with psoriasis also develop inflammation of joints (psoriatic arthritis). The first appearance of the skin disease (psoriasis) can be separated from the onset of joint disease (arthritis) by years. Psoriatic arthritis belongs to a group of arthrit  Read More

  • Pyogenic arthritis

    Infectious arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints that occurs as a result of infection by bacteria, viruses or, less frequently, fungi or parasites. The symptoms of Infectious arthritis depend upon which agent has caused the infection but symptoms often include fever, chills, general weakness, and headaches, followed by inflammation and painful swelling of one or more joints of the body.Most often, the infection begins  Read More

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (ra)

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect more than just your joints. In some people, the condition can damage a wide variety of body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart and blood vessels. An autoimmune disorder, rheumatoid arthritis occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks your own body's tissues. Unlike the wear-and-tear damage of ost  Read More

  • Stroke

    If you're like most Americans, you plan for your future. When you take a job, you examine its benefit plan. When you buy a home, you consider its location and condition so that your investment is safe. Today, more and more Americans are protecting their most important asset--their health. Are you? Stroke ranks as the third leading killer in the United States. A stroke can be devastating to individuals and their families, robbing them o  Read More

  • Subcortical dementia

    Binswanger disease is a progressive neurological disorder caused by arteriosclerosis and thromboembolism affecting the blood vessels that supply the white-matter and deep structures of the brain (basal ganglia and thalamus). Most patients experience progressive loss of memory and intellectual abilities (dementia), urinary urgency or incontinence, and an abnormally slow, shuffling, unsteady pattern of walking, usually over a 5-10 year period. D  Read More

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. SLE is characterized by the production of unusual antibodies in the blood. SLE is eight times more common in women than men. The cause(s) of SLE is (are) unknown, however, heredity, viruses, ultraviolet light, and drugs all may play some role. Up to 10% of people with lupus isolated to the skin will develop the systemic form of lupus (SLE)  Read More

  • The heart and vascular disease

    Vascular disease includes any condition that affects the circulatory system. As the heart beats, it pumps blood through a system of blood vessels called the circulatory system. The vessels are elastic tubes that carry blood to every part of the body. Arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins return it. Vascular disease ranges from diseases of your arteries, veins, and lymph vessels to blood disorders that affect circulation.  Read More

  • Tylenol (acetaminophen) liver damage

    Acetaminophen is a very safe drug when taken as directed, even for people with liver disease. Nevertheless, every drug carries risks. Liver damage from acetaminophen, which can be severe, can result either from an overdose or from regular doses that are taken while drinking alcohol. Most cases of acetaminophen-induced liver injury are caused by an intentional or suicidal overdose. Unintentional or accidental  Read More

  • Type 2 diabetes

    Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in the way the body regulates and uses sugar (glucose) as a fuel. This long-term (chronic) condition results in too much sugar circulating in the bloodstream. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to disorders of the circulatory, nervous and immune systems. In type 2 diabetes, there are primarily two interrelated problems at work. Your pancreas does not p  Read More

  • Urethro-oculo-articular syndrome

    Reactive arthritis is a general term for a form of joint inflammation (arthritis) that develops as a "reaction" to an infection in another area of the body (i.e., outside of the joints). Joint inflammation is characterized by redness, swelling, pain and warmth in and around the affected joint. In reactive arthritis, the large joints of the lower limbs and the sacroiliac joints are most often affected. Two other common symptoms of reactive arth  Read More

  • Vacterl association

    General DiscussionVACTERL association is a nonrandom association of birth defects that affects multiple median and para-median structures. The term VACTERL is an acronym with each letter representing the first letter of one of the more common findings seen in affected children:(V) = (costo-) vertebral abnormalities(A) = anal atresia(C) = cardiac (heart) defects(TE) = tracheal-esophageal abnormalities, including atr  Read More

  • Ventricular septal defect

    What is a ventricular septal defect (VSD)? A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a heart malformation present at birth. Any condition that is present at birth can also be termed a "congenital" condition. A VSD, therefore, is a type of congenital heart disease (CHD). The heart with a VSD has a hole in the wall (the septum) between its two lower chambers (the ventricles). How common is a VSD? The most frequent types of con  Read More

  • Vermis cerebellar agenesis

    Joubert syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects the area of the brain that controls balance and coordination. This condition is characterized by a specific finding on an MRI called a "molar tooth sign" in which the cerebellar vermis of the brain is absent or underdeveloped and the brain stem is abnormal. The most common features of Joubert syndrome are lack of muscle control (ataxia), abnormal breathing patterns (hyper  Read More

  • Virtual colonoscopy

    What is colonoscopy? Colonoscopy is a procedure that enables an examiner (usually a gastroenterologist) to evaluate the appearance of the inside of the colon (large bowel). This is accomplished by inserting a long flexible tube (the colonoscope) that is about the thickness of a finger into the anus and then advancing the colonoscope slowly into the rectum and through the colon. The tip of the colonoscope has a light and a video camera  Read More

  • Ws -- werner syndrome

    Werner Syndrome is a rare progressive disorder that is characterized by the appearance of unusually accelerated aging (progeria). Although the disorder is typically recognized by the third or fourth decades of life, certain characteristic findings are present beginning during adolescence and early adulthood.Individuals with Werner Syndrome have an abnormally slow growth rate, and there is cessation of growth at puberty. As a result  Read More